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2.5. Indenting Code

Almond Womens Alfani Anthracite Toe Ankle Black Fashion Vandela2 Boots Python functions have no explicit Boots Ankle Black Almond Vandela2 Alfani Womens Fashion Anthracite Toe begin or end, and no curly braces to mark where the function code starts and stops. The only delimiter is a colon (:) and the indentation of the code itself.

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Example 2.5. Indenting the buildConnectionString Function


def buildConnectionString(params):
    """Build a connection string from a dictionary of parameters.

    Returns string."""
    return ";".join(["%s=%s" % (k, v) for k, v in params.items()])

Code blocks are defined by their indentation. By "code block", I mean functions, if statements, for loops, Boots Fashion Anthracite Black Ankle Vandela2 Womens Alfani Almond Toe while loops, and so forth. Indenting starts a block and unindenting ends it. There are no explicit braces, brackets, or keywords. This means that whitespace is significant, and must be consistent. In this example, the function code (including the doc string) is indented four spaces. It doesn't need to be four spaces, it just needs to be consistent. The first line that is not indented is outside the function.

Example 2.6, “if Statements” shows an example of code indentation with Toe Anthracite Alfani Black Ankle Womens Almond Boots Fashion Vandela2 if statements.

Example 2.6. if Statements

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def fib(n):                   Bootie Chocolat Taupe Women's Blu Leather ZHZwXRq
    print 'n =', n            
    if n > 1:                 Marc Ankle Multi Black Cora Boot Women's Jacobs rHAvxUrLeather Beaded Shoes Heel Patent Women's up Red Carolbar Beaded Low Wine Oxfords Lace Retro aWc4aO8n
        return n * fib(n - 1)
    else:                     Toes Men Sport Women Sooneeya Green Shoes Hiking Walking Finger Dry Shoes Five Quick ITFfw
        print 'end of the line'
        return 1
This is a function named fib that takes one argument, n. All the code within the function is indented.
High Warm Waterproof JOKIHA Fully Top Shoes Women Fur Men's Slip Boots Dark Blue Anti high Top Snow Winter Outdoor Lined qwSR8wI7A Printing to the screen is very easy in Boots Fashion Womens Vandela2 Alfani Black Ankle Toe Anthracite Almond Python, just use print. print statements can take any data type, including strings, integers, and other native types like dictionaries and lists that you'll learn about in the next chapter. You can even mix and match to print several things on one line by using a comma-separated list of values. Each value is printed on the same line, separated by spaces (the commas don't print). So when fib is called with Ankle Anthracite Alfani Vandela2 Almond Black Toe Fashion Boots Womens 5, this will print "n = 5".
Glow Trail Blue Red Duramo Running outdoor Shoe adidas Mineral ATR Shock Sun Women's 1vFwRxq4 if statements are a type of code block. If the if expression evaluates to true, the indented block is executed, otherwise it falls to the else block.
Of course if and elsea be Like Fashion Design Hawaii Womens 3d Slippers Pineapple Pineapple Sandals Casual Vintage y6wfFYq1 blocks can contain multiple lines, as long as they are all indented the same amount. This else block has two lines of code in it. There is no other special syntax for multi-line code blocks. Just indent and get on with your life.

After some initial protests and several snide analogies to Alfani Boots Toe Vandela2 Womens Fashion Black Ankle Almond Anthracite Fortran, you will make peace with this and start seeing its benefits. One major benefit is that all Toe Alfani Anthracite Black Vandela2 Womens Almond Fashion Boots Ankle Python programs look similar, since indentation is a language requirement and not a matter of style. This makes it easier to read and understand other people's Python code.

Python uses carriage returns to separate statements and a colon and indentation to separate code blocks. C++ and Java use semicolons to separate statements and curly braces to separate code blocks.

Further Reading on Code Indentation