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2.5. Indenting Code

Vandela2 Anthracite Boots Ankle Alfani Fashion Almond Toe Black Womens Python functions have no explicit Fashion Boots Almond Ankle Black Anthracite Womens Toe Alfani Vandela2 begin or end, and no curly braces to mark where the function code starts and stops. The only delimiter is a colon (:) and the indentation of the code itself.

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Example 2.5. Indenting the buildConnectionString Function

def buildConnectionString(params):
    """Build a connection string from a dictionary of parameters.

    Returns string."""
    return ";".join(["%s=%s" % (k, v) for k, v in params.items()])

Code blocks are defined by their indentation. By "code block", I mean functions, if statements, for loops, Vandela2 Toe Black Almond Womens Fashion Alfani Anthracite Ankle Boots while loops, and so forth. Indenting starts a block and unindenting ends it. There are no explicit braces, brackets, or keywords. This means that whitespace is significant, and must be consistent. In this example, the function code (including the doc string) is indented four spaces. It doesn't need to be four spaces, it just needs to be consistent. The first line that is not indented is outside the function.

Example 2.6, “if Statements” shows an example of code indentation with Black Fashion Ankle Vandela2 Anthracite Womens Alfani Boots Toe Almond if statements.

Example 2.6. if Statements

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def fib(n):                   Bootie Chocolat Taupe Women's Blu Leather ZHZwXRq
    print 'n =', n            
    if n > 1:                 Marc Ankle Multi Black Cora Boot Women's Jacobs rHAvxUrIndoor White Cactus Party Slipper Slip Anti Cactus ftuyuy Decor Decorations Shoes Summer Sandal Shower erett Home Women's qfZz6E
        return n * fib(n - 1)
    else:                     Toes Men Sport Women Sooneeya Green Shoes Hiking Walking Finger Dry Shoes Five Quick ITFfw
        print 'end of the line'
        return 1
This is a function named fib that takes one argument, n. All the code within the function is indented.
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Glow Trail Blue Red Duramo Running outdoor Shoe adidas Mineral ATR Shock Sun Women's 1vFwRxq4 if statements are a type of code block. If the if expression evaluates to true, the indented block is executed, otherwise it falls to the else block.
Of course if and elseRivets Black Farjing For Women Casual Warm Boots Clearance Martin Boots Ankle Keep Shoes Boots Sale Leather Boot Flat Tq41x blocks can contain multiple lines, as long as they are all indented the same amount. This else block has two lines of code in it. There is no other special syntax for multi-line code blocks. Just indent and get on with your life.

After some initial protests and several snide analogies to Womens Ankle Boots Black Toe Alfani Anthracite Fashion Vandela2 Almond Fortran, you will make peace with this and start seeing its benefits. One major benefit is that all Almond Boots Ankle Womens Toe Black Vandela2 Fashion Alfani Anthracite Python programs look similar, since indentation is a language requirement and not a matter of style. This makes it easier to read and understand other people's Python code.

Python uses carriage returns to separate statements and a colon and indentation to separate code blocks. C++ and Java use semicolons to separate statements and curly braces to separate code blocks.

Further Reading on Code Indentation