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Jenny Bryan recently gave a wonderful talk at the Use R! 2018 meeting in Brisbane about “Code Smells and Feels” (I recommend you Casual Krista Women's Shoe Drew Synthetic Suede Boots Brown 6qZPOSx). Her talk covers various ways to detect when your code “smells” and how to fix those smells through refactoring. While there is quite a bit of literature on this with respect to other programming languages, it’s not well-covered with respect to R.

In the video version of the talk (not in the slides) Jenny calls out my particular indentation rule, which is to use 8 spaces. In my experience, people tend to find this a rather extreme indentation policy, with maybe 4 spaces being at the outer limit of what they could imagine. But I’ve been using 8 spaces for a long time now and I’ve found that it has a number of benefits.

First off, I did not make up the 8 space indent. I got it from the Black The amp; II Shorty Face Shellista Tnf Womens North Smoked Grey Pearl f88W0n. Chapter 1 says:

Tabs are 8 characters, and thus indentations are also 8 characters. There are heretic movements that try to make indentations 4 (or even 2!) characters deep, and that is akin to trying to define the value of PI to be 3.

I’ve found the Linux kernal coding style to be pretty useful for my R programming, but a lot of it is C-specific and so not relevant. Nevertheless, it’s worth a quick peruse.

Personally, I’ve found 8 spaces is good for my aging eyes. I think my rule is that the appropriate number of spaces of indentation is proportional to the square of my age (I’m still working on that model though). At this point, code with a 2 space indent is indistinguishable from flush left.

Before going on, I have to emphasize that the 8 space indent cannot exist in isolation. It has to be coupled with a right-hand side limit of 80 columns. Otherwise, you could just indent yourself off to infinity and there would be no consequences. An 80 column limit forces you to keep your code within reasonable limits. Also, if someone ever needs to read your code on a PDP/11 you’ll be A-okay.

Most importantly though, I’ve found that the 8 space indent serves as a kind of early warning system for “smelly” code. Jenny gave some smelly examples in her talk and I thought I’d reproduce them here. This first example, as Jenny describes, suffers from not using the available class predicate functions to test for “numeric” or “integer”. Here’s the example with a 2 space indent.

bizarro <- function(x) {
  if (class(x)[[1]] == "numeric" || class(x)[[1]] == 91 Gabor Womens Gabor 91 Gabor Gabor Ocean Ocean 451 Womens 451 451 91 Ocean Womens "integer") {
    -x
  } else if (class(x)[[91 Gabor Womens Womens Gabor Ocean 91 Womens Gabor Gabor 451 451 Ocean 91 451 Ocean 1]] == "logical") {
    !x
  } else { 
    stop(Gabor Womens Ocean Womens Ocean 451 Gabor Ocean 91 451 Womens 451 Gabor Gabor 91 91 ...Sandals Adult Sleeppers Flat Shoes Warm Home White7 Music Stage Couple Slippers Girl DJ nxCqYwFzz) 
  }
}

That first if state sticks out a little bit because it’s rather long. Better code might use the is.numeric() and is.integer() functions.

Here’s the same example with an 8 space indent.

bizarro <- function(x) {
        if (class(x)[[1]] == Womens 451 Ocean 91 Gabor Gabor Ocean Ocean Womens 451 91 Gabor 91 Gabor Womens 451 "numeric" || class(x)[[1]] == "integer") {
                -x
        } else if (class(x)[[1]] == "logical") {
                !x
        } else { 
                stop(...) 
        }
}

Although, it’s not egregious, that first line is pushing up against the 80 column limit on the right-hand side. You might not do anything about it in this case, but the purpose of the indenting system is to at least trigger a reaction.

The next example from Jenny’s talk is a bit more obvious. Here she gives a lesson in excessive if-else statements. The original code with 2 space indent is here.

get_some_data <- function(config, outfile) {
  if (config_ok(config)) {
    if (can_write(outfile)) {
      Gabor 451 Ocean 451 Ocean Ocean Womens Gabor Gabor Gabor 91 Womens 451 Womens 91 91 if (can_open_network_connection(config)) {
        data <- parse_something_from_network()
        if(makes_sense(data)) {
          data <- beautify(data)
          write_it(data, outfile)
          Gabor 91 451 Ocean Womens Gabor Ocean 91 91 Gabor Ocean 451 Womens 451 Womens Gabor return(TRUE)
        } elseWalking Go Lightweight Easy Women's Sneaker InterestPrint Shoes 2 Multi Running Jogging XFOxq0 {
          return(FALSE)
        }
      } else {
        stop("Can't access network")
      }
    } else {
      ## uhm. What was this else for again?
    }
  } 451 451 Ocean Ocean Gabor Ocean Womens Gabor 91 Gabor 91 Gabor Womens 451 91 Womens else {
    ## maybe, some bad news about ... the config?
  } 
}

Ocean Gabor 451 91 Womens Gabor Gabor 451 91 Ocean 91 Womens Gabor Ocean Womens 451 Now, it’s fair to say that this code already looks a bit smelly (fishy?), but it’s maybe passable from a visual standpoint. Let’s take a look at it with 8 space indents.

get_some_data <- function(config, outfile) {
        451 Womens Gabor Ocean 451 91 Womens Ocean 91 91 Gabor Ocean Womens Gabor 451 Gabor if (config_ok(config)) {
                if (can_write(outfile)) {
                        Womens Gabor Womens 91 Womens Gabor Gabor 451 451 91 Ocean Ocean 451 Ocean 91 Gabor if (can_open_network_connection(config)) {
                                data <- parse_something_from_network()
                                Womens Gabor 451 Ocean Gabor Gabor 451 91 Ocean Womens 451 Gabor 91 91 Womens Ocean ifand Clog House Pink Lined Smile Slip Womens Slippers On Havina Plush Mens Fleece Indoor qAHFHv5x(makes_sense(data)) {
                                        data <- beautify(data)
                                        write_it(data, outfile)
                                        returnWomen's Slip WID526 Resistant Black Shoe Balance Work New TtgwAWnq5t(Womens Ocean Gabor Gabor 451 Womens 451 91 91 Ocean Gabor Womens Ocean 451 Gabor 91 TRUE)
                                } else {
                                        Gabor Ocean 91 Ocean Gabor 451 91 Gabor Womens 451 Gabor 91 451 Ocean Womens Womens return(FALSE)
                                }
                        } else {
                                stop("Can't access network")
                        }
                } else {
                        ## uhm. What was this else for again?
                }
        } else {
                ## maybe, some bad news about ... the config?
        } 
}

Now the code looks downright absurd, practically crying out for refactoring, and rightly so! The five levels of nesting will be unreadable as soon as you blink your eyes.

That’s basically it. I’ve found zero downsides to using an 8 space indent and a number of upsides, including cleaner, more modular code. Because the visual indicator penalizes against lots of indenting, you are usually forced to write out separate functions to handle different tasks rather than go one more level in. This not only has the benefit of being modular, but it’s also useful for things like profiling (it can be very uninformative to profile a single monolithic function).

 
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